In a second 2007 study titled Genital Transmission of HPV in a Mouse Model is Potentiated by Nonoxynol-9 and Inhibited by Carrageenan, the research team of Jeffrey Roberts, Christopher Buck, Cynthia Thompson, Rhonda Kines, Marcelino Bernardo, Peter L. Choyke, Douglas R. Lowy & John T. Schiller made an extraordinary series of revelations using in vivo testing with mice.
First they found that the common spermicide Nonoxynol-9 actually increased the likelihood of HPV infection significantly.They also found that carrageenan in general, and Divine 9 specifically, virtually eliminated HPV infection in the mice. Finally, they found that when a carrageenan based product like Divine 9 is combined with Nonoxynol-9, the likelihood of HPV infection is once again reduced significantly.
While this study was not conducted on humans, the conclusion is still thought provoking. Using Nonoxynol-9 as a spermicide for birth control has the potential to increase the chances of being infected by HPV. However, when combined with a carrageenan-based product like Divine 9, the risk of infection might be reduced.